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GTO poker strategy

GTO poker means “Game Theory Optimal”. In simple words, GTO means “the most unexploitable”. It is the strategy that will prevent your opponent from exploiting you. But there is one feature: there is no specific definition concerning what exactly GTO should be, but it will beat anyone who doesn’t follow this strategy. GTO doesn’t adapt to the opponents’ play. That implies the following: you should make such a strategy that will impede your opponent to exploit you.

The knowledge of the GTO concepts gives you an opportunity to find the workable strategies that will help you to cope with the opponents and protect you from the situations where you can be exploited by the other players.

In this article we will consider three simple play techniques on GTO strategy, the advantages and disadvantages of this method, and also the problems related to the game based on this style.

GTO poker is the scenario where both players play perfectly but nobody can improve their strategy in the future.

It is obvious that you will seldom play against the opponents who play perfectly, but if you are not careful, then they will be able to choose the strategy that will be better than yours! You should select the strategy that will prevent your opponent from exploiting you.

Let’s assume that you are playing against a good opponent and let’s consider an example.

GTO Simple example

You raise on the preflop and only the player on the button makes a call. Let’s consider two possible variants:

  • Strategy “A” – you bet only in the case if you have a top-pair or better.
  • Strategy “B” – you bet only in the case if you don’t hit the board.

If you always use the strategy “A”, then what will your opponent do? If you make a bet only in the case where you have the good cards, then most often he will fold against your bet and will wait for really good hands.

If you always use the strategy “B”, then what will your opponent do? He will bluff every time you make a bet!

The best option is to steer a middle course. GTO poker encourages using the perfect combination of the strong hands and the bluff. It can be a difficult task to cope with it, that’s why you should acquaint with the several practical tips that will help you to move in GTO direction:

  • A lot of bluff on the flop.
  • The small bets with the strong ranges.
  • The large bets and raises for a win.

Many players bluff not enough on the flop against the other good players. Let’s assume that you are using the bet sizes of about 60-75% of the pot. You should bet about 60/40 with a bluff in order to extract the value on the flop.

In order to achieve this goal you should check the hands of a medium strength. These are such hands as the second pair or top-pair with a weak kicker. It is obvious that you won’t fold – you check or check/call without position or you will make check-back in position. In any case, it is difficult to get value on the three streets with these hands.

If you want to hone your skills then you should develop the range thinking. You should practice and record the entire range on the flop. Calculate the quantity of the bluff bets (including semi-bluff). Calculate your ready-made hands with which you bet. Then determine a coefficient.

Let’s assume that you calculate your range by using the above-mentioned technique and find out that you have much more value-hands rather than the bluff ones. This may happen in the case if your preflop range is very strong as it is in the 3-bet pots.

So, in order to move in GTO direction you should make the smaller bets. You can get close to 50% of the pot and in the extreme cases there is a sense to bet in the range of 30-40% of the pot.

Usually it happens on the river. Let’s assume that you call your opponent’s bet on the flop and turn and he checks on the river. Now, when you make the bet it is difficult for you to bluff. Probably there is a sense to bet practically with every hand in your range and use a little size: perhaps 30-40% of the pot.

In the poker math, two really clever men (the authors) decided to use the best strategy on three postflop-streets when you have the nuts. What was the strategy? To invest all the money to the river by doing the three equal size bets in the pot.

For example, if you have the nuts and make the bet with a pot size three times and then go all-in, so that should be so. If you are in the pot with one raise, then as a rule the over-bets are made on every street in order to invest all the money.

Nowadays, over-betting isn’t considered as a “standard” solution and it can provoke an unpredictable reaction from your opponent, that’s why you should be cautious while using this strategy in a practice. Just understand that a theoretical method really suggests such a variant.

There is another awesome thing concerning the large bets. The larger your bet is, the more bluffs you may have (and should have) in your range. In this article it was mentioned about the bluff using in the range of 60/40 in order to extract the value by playing with a technique №1. If you make the bet of a pot size on the flop or over-bet, then you can do it over 75/25! Please note that these are those hands you would fold but now they give you money.

The last thing you should remember – when you get to the river and since the bluff percentage should be in your range, then most of your range should have the value. With a pot size bet on the river, for example, 2/3 of your bets should be for value and only 1/3 should be the bluff one.

GTO strategy has a number of practical advantages.

  • It is difficult to exploit the play based on the GTO strategy.
  • The play based on the GTO strategy is a winning one against any opponent.
  • The play method based on the GTO strategy is a perfect strategy by default.

However, this strategy has one disadvantage: the play won’t always be the most profitable, because GTO doesn’t consider your opponents' tendencies.

No-limit Holdem is an unsolved issue that’s why there is no right and exact strategy. No matter how good-balanced strategy can be according to your opinion, but there will be always the weak places that can be exploited.

Even if the GTO strategy was well-known, it would be almost impossible to use it without a computer. But No-Limit Holdem is too complicated game for it. At this moment the best you can do is to simulate GTO play and try to do it unexploitable based on the well-known theoretical concepts.

For today GTO is a hot theme but most of the people don’t understand the meaning of this strategy and also don’t understand why they should learn it. But you should learn GTO! The concepts knowledge will give you an opportunity to find the right strategies that can help you to exploit the opponents and become the winners.